Monday, March 23, 2020
70+ Academic Honors Examples for Your College Application SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips College applications are all about showing off to the admissions committee, and what better way to do so than to lead with your most impressive academic awards.What are the best academic honors and awards to put on a college application? In this guide, we give you 70+ academic honors examples to give you an idea of what types of achievements colleges like to see most on applications.In addition, we explain what counts as an academic honor or award, go over different impressive academic honors and awards examples you can get, and give you useful tips for effectively talking about awards on your application. What Is an Academic Honor or Award? First things first, what counts as an academic honor or award? Generally speaking, an academic honor or award is any major achievement youÃ¢â¬â¢ve made and been recognized for in some way.The form of recognition can range from an actual object, such as a trophy or plaque, to prize money, a title, or verbal recognition. Typically, an academic honor will fall into one of the following categories: Distinction, honor, or honorable mentionfor which you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t usually receive a physical object or award- just the title A diploma or certificate indicating the completion of a program or recognizing an accomplishment in a program or other activity Prize or award won from a contest, competition, or tournament Scholarship given in recognition of an outstanding (academic) accomplishment Membership in a highly selective and competitive group or society If youÃ¢â¬â¢ve won any awards for specific activities such as a sport you play or a club youÃ¢â¬â¢re part of, itÃ¢â¬â¢s better to list these in the extracurricular activities section of your application instead of in a separate awards section. So what are some honors and awards to put on a college application? Up next, we'll take a look at more than 70 academic honors examples. Academic Honors and Awards Examples Here, we give you a list of 70+ academic honors and awards examples you could include on your own college application, from prizes won in national and international contests to school-based distinctions and awards. All the academic honors examples below are grouped by category and listed alphabetically. Note that this is not an exhaustive list of all academic honors and awards you could possibly have, so if you have an achievement that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t exactly match one of the examples below, donÃ¢â¬â¢t worry- you can still put it on your college application! Advanced Placement (AP) Awards AP International Diploma (APID) AP Scholar AP Scholar with Distinction AP Scholar with Honor DoDEA AP Scholar International AP Scholar National AP Scholar State AP Scholar IB Awards IB Diploma IB Middle Years Programme (MYP) Certificate National Awards GovernorÃ¢â¬â¢s Volunteer Award National Student Volunteer Award PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s Award for Educational Achievement PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s Award for Educational Excellence PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s National Service Award PSAT Awards National Hispanic Scholar National Merit Commended Student National Merit Finalist National Merit Scholar National Merit Semifinalist School-based National Merit Scholarship winner School-Based Awards Foreign language award High class rank (e.g., top 10%) Honor roll/GPA award National Honor Society membership Perfect Attendance Award School-specific award School subject-specific award Student of the Month/Term/Year Subject-specific Honor Society membership (e.g., Science Honor Society) Competitions and Contests Award for high placement (1st, 2nd, 3rd, or 4th) or participation in any major (academic) contest, such as the following: AAN Neuroscience Research Prize Academic Decathlon Academic Triathlon American Regions Mathematics League (ARML) B.E.S.T. Robotics Design contest Conrad Spirit of Innovation Challenge Davidson Fellows Scholarship Doodle 4 Google Google Science Fair Intel International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF) International BioGENEius Challenge International Chemistry Olympiad International Mathematical Olympiad International Photography Awards (IPA) Kids Philosophy Slam LifeSmarts Microsoft Imagine Cup MIT INSPIRE MIT THINK Scholars Program Model UN National Academic League National Academic Quiz Tournament National Economics Challenge by CEE National Geographic Bee National Geographic Student Photo Contest National High School Mock Trial Championship National Science Bowl National Science Olympiad PhysicsBowl Quiz Bowl Regeneron Science Talent Search (STS) Regional/National Junior Science and Humanities Symposium Scholastic Art Writing Awards Toshiba/NSTA ExploraVision Awards University Interscholastic League (UIL) Miscellaneous Awards Boy Scouts/Eagle Scouts awards Employee of the Month Girl Scouts awards Merit scholarships for college Musical performance award National Novel Writing Month (NaNoWriMo) winner National Poetry Writing Month (NaPoWriMo) winner Publications (such as short stories, art pieces, essays, etc.) Volunteer award Work award or promotion The Best Honors and Awards to Put on a College Application Of the dozens of academic honors examples above, which ones will look the most impressive on a college application?Here, we explain the top four qualities a truly impressive academic honor will have. Note that an honor doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t need to have allthese qualities, though if it does, then it is definitely an excellent one to put on your application! #1: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Highly Selective One quality you want to highlight on your application is the selectivity of the award or honor youÃ¢â¬â¢ve won.In other words, the academic award will be one that a lot of students try to win, making it difficult to achieve. For example, because national and international contests and competitions draw so many student competitors, winning an award like these would certainly impress the admissions committee. The more selective an academic honor or award is, the more impressive itÃ¢â¬â¢ll look on your college application. Academic Honors Examples of Highly Selective Awards National Merit Scholar Google Science Fair winner National Student Volunteer Award #2: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Unique Admissions committees see a lot of honor roll and National Society honors on college applications (not that these are bad- theyÃ¢â¬â¢re just fairly common). So if you've won a particularly unique or rare award, definitely include it on your application, as this willhelp you stand out from the crowd. A unique award can be highly selective; it can also be one that is less well known or that highlights something creative, surprising, or impressive about you. For instance, maybe you won the Most Innovative Employee award at your part-time job after you pitched the idea to create and manage a social media page for the company. Academic Honors Examples of Unique Awards Specific school-based awards (e.g., Most Confident Speaker in Chinese Class) Local or community-based awards #3: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Relevant to Your Academic Interests and Strengths Another academic award or honor that'sgreat to include on your college application is one thatÃ¢â¬â¢s relevant to your academic interests and strengths.These are typically subject- or field-specific awards, such as English or writing awards, math awards, etc. For example, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re planning to major in engineering, you'd want to detail any awards you might have won in science, math, or engineering contests. Relevant awards indicate to the admissions committee not only that youÃ¢â¬â¢re truly committed to the field you want to study, but also that youÃ¢â¬â¢re one of the most promising students in your field. Academic Honors Examples of Relevant Awards AP award Writing award or publication (if youÃ¢â¬â¢re an English or creative writing major, for example) STEM award (if youÃ¢â¬â¢re a STEM major) Model UN (if youÃ¢â¬â¢re a political science or IR major, for example) #4: It Highlights Your Leadership Potential An impressive academic honor or award will also emphasize your leadership potential.These are typicallyawards that involve group or collaborative work.So if you ever led others to success- as a captain or president, for instance- this kind of honor would look great to potential colleges. Just make sure that you explain on your application what kind of role you had and how your leadership specifically led your team to success. Academic Honors Examples of Leadership/Group Awards Volunteer awards Girl Scouts or Eagle Scouts awards How to Talk About Honors on Your College Application: 4 Tips Since you likely wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have a lot of room to write about academic honors and awards on your application, it's important thatyou present your academic achievements in an effective, impressive way.Here are some tips on how to talk about the awards you've won. Tip 1: Open With Your Most Impressive Awards Admissions officers donÃ¢â¬â¢t usually spend a lot of time with each application they get, so you want to make sure that youÃ¢â¬â¢re catching their eyes right away by starting with your most impressive honors and awards.These will generally be awards that are highly competitive and required a lot of work and commitment on your end. Tip 2: Focus on Your Spike A "spike" is a particular academic passion you have.For example, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re a science buff who plans to major in chemistry, you'd want to emphasize your spike on your application by focusing primarily on your chemistry- and science-related activities and awards. Having a spike will ultimately help you stand out from other applicants.To learn more about how you can develop a spike, check out our guide on how to get into Harvard and the Ivy League. Spikes: good for hedgehogs and college applications. Tip 3: Describe Awards That Are Vague or Unclear Not all academic awards and honors are well known or obvious, especially if theyÃ¢â¬â¢re unique to your school or area. Therefore, make sure that youÃ¢â¬â¢re using the space you have in the awards section of your application to describe any academic honors that the admissions committee is probably unfamiliar with. The last thing you want an award to do is confuse admissions officers, so be clear about what it is, how you won it, and what makes it impressive. Tip 4: Explain the Competitiveness of the Award For each academic award or honor youÃ¢â¬â¢ve won, you want to clarify its level of competitiveness by explaining the scope of the competition.For example, was the science tournament you won a national one? A local one? A school-based one? Note that if the award has the word "national" or "international" in it, you shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to add much explanation to its description since it'll be obvious that the award is fairly selective. The overall point here is to show off! Recap: Honors and Awards to Put on a College Application As you can see, there's a huge variety in the types of academic honors and awards examples you can put on your college application. The 70+ academic honors examples listed above are just some of the possible honors you could include. In general, the best academic honors to include on your application will have some or all of the following qualities: TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re highly selective/competitive TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re unique They highlight your academic interests and strengths (your "spike," that is) They emphasize your leadership skills/potential You wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have a ton of space on your application to explain the academic awards youÃ¢â¬â¢ve won, so itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to use the room you have wisely. To reiterate, here are our four best tips for how to talk about your academic awards and honors on your application: Open with your most impressive awards and honors Focus on your spike- i.e.,your biggest academic passion and commitment Describe any vague, unclear, or lesser-known awards/honors you've received Explain the competitiveness of the award Now get out there and win some awards! WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Next? Lots of colleges use the Common App. If you're going to be using this platform to apply to college, make sure you know what to expect with the Common App honors section. Planning to take AP tests in the spring? If you're hoping to snag a distinguished AP award, read our guide to get tips on how you can do this. Honors can prove that you're a serious and ambitious college applicant.Check out our expert guide to learn what high school honors is and how you can achieve honors status at your own high school. Want to build the best possible college application? We can help. PrepScholar Admissions is the world's best admissions consulting service. We combine world-class admissions counselors with our data-driven, proprietary admissions strategies. We've overseen thousands of students get into their top choice schools, from state colleges to the Ivy League. We know what kinds of students colleges want to admit. We want to get you admitted to your dream schools. Learn more about PrepScholar Admissions to maximize your chance of getting in.
Friday, March 6, 2020
buy custom Ode to a Nightingale essay The poem Ode to a Nightingale, by the poet John Keats with the other odes, is some of the most important achievements of his poetic history. These odes collectively put forward the ideal of romance and eternal love. The poem in particular is significant as it discusses the immortality of nature with the beauty of its creation, but it tries to reject the optimistic pursuit of pleasures that are found in other Keats poems. It is analyzed with reference to the ode in this article. Keats was one of the most popular poets of the early nineteenth century. He is responsible for the development of the Romanticism, which was a movement that espoused the sanctity of emotion and imagination, and privileged the beauty of the natural world. Many of ideas and themes evident in Keatss great odes are quintessentially Romantic concerns: the beauty of nature, the relation between imagination and creativity, the response of passions to beauty and sufferings, and the transience of human life in time p 8. Ode to a Nightingale was one of the most popular odes of John Keats considering he had written other very popular and well developed odes. The choice of a nightingale can be questioned, but the answer to that is a Greek legend which explains the evolution of the nightingale as a bird and how it is supposed to have a magical voice. Keats is considered an important patron of the Romanticism especially in Britain. If this is true, then this certainly is his masterpiece (Leeds 19). The poem Ode to a Nightingale gives the descriptions of series between reality and romantic ideal for union of nature. It is the existence of struggle between the real and ideal that have the antithesis of pain and pleasure. It is the sense of fulfilling the imagination and the fullness the performance change in humans and nature. He is addressing the nightingale in a forest as being an object of empathy and praise in the poem where it gets its name, Ode to a Nightingale. He is not envious of the nightingales happiness but is glad to share it with her. The discussion does not concern the bird and its song but the experience of humans, as the song signifies the complex image which is being formed by the interaction of voices of praise and empathy. There is a connection of the song to the music produced by the urn in Ode on a Grecian urn that was connected to the sculpture art. Thus, the nightingale has the representation of presence that is enchanting, which has a direct connection tom nature unlike in the urn. The natural beauty is lacking in the song as there is no true message, as he follows the belief of Coleridge by losing himself in the separation of the worl from the song. The previous depictions in the poem had the melancholic feels that is lacking in this happy songbird, which is the only voice in the poem. There is the highlight of desire for alcohol, and the speaker wants to get drunk and enjoy like the nightingale. The nightingales voice has the power of compelling the narrator in joining the song so that he forgets the world and its sorrow, but there is the guilt in regard to the toms and his brother death as held by the narrator (Leeds 19). Three is the representation to give up the troubles and problems associated with the human life to disappear from the world to the fantasy realm. He wants them to fade away so that he can enjoy and be like the nightingale, carefree and singing. The speaker detests the lack of permanent happiness as there is the idea of mortality associated with the human life depicted in phrases such as, youth grows pale, and specter-thin, and dies, and beauty cannot keep her lustrous eyes. There is the narrators abandoning of his sense so that he can embrace the song by sharing darkness with it. The narrator is left wondering whether it was real vision or just a dream as he was left broken after the song ended. The poem is relying on the sleeping process that is always common to his poems as there is the sharing of themes. The nightingale is depicted to be mysterious with its disappearing at the end of the poem. It is the elusiveness the poem tries to emphasize in the dream image as the elements in the poem does not complete the nightingale and the self identification allowing only the self awareness. The poem has splits with the first trying to identify the bird, and the song and the other is the convergence of past with the present with the present experiences. This is the reminder of the progress of human and how the development of man is from the experience of wanting pleasure only for him to understand that pleasure and pain are mixtures of truth. The nightingale fly away, and the speaker fly with it in a drunk manner but through the poetry. He wants to glide away from the trouble of the human life and experience happiness of nature like the nightingale experiences. This are the moments of pleasure that do overwhelm an individual like drug with a short lasting experience of pleasure as the narrator is depicted as being left without pleasure as the body has the desire for it. Thus, the narrator has to hide in the poem because of loss of pleasure and does not want to embrace the truth. The pleasure asked by the narrator is not brought, but it is only liberating him from the des ires of pleasure. The fifth and sixth stanzas pay specific attention to this aspect of natures beauty and how it is fascinating forr the speaker. There is the progression of association that makes the feeling movements being at the mercy of the words that by chance were evoked. The acceptance to the loss of pleasure is the acceptance of life and later death as it is the constant theme of Keats poetry because of her exposure to it. Keats has been extremely popular for his odes and their multiple themes via these odes. Ode to a Nightingale is one of a kind. The poets speaker is involved in the exploration of themes regarding the creative expression and mortality of human life. Ode to a Nightingale seems to enlighten the reader with the method of the transience of life. Human life is not eternal, and man seems to keep growing old till the point when he/she dies. This theme of pleasure loss and the inevitable death is thus describing the inadequate pleasure and romantic escape to the worlds of beauty from the real world. Changes in the levels of life and mortality are displeasing as the speaker life young and beautiful like the si nging of a nightingale. The poem is depicting that humans are in search of the mystery in the unsuccessful quest for its light in the darkness, that only lead to increase in darkness, thus; their recognition of how impossible the mystery is to the mortals. The pleasure and death incorporation gives the poem a darker environment that connects the other poems to the imagination of demonic nature. The poem focuses on the immortality of nature when compared to the mortality of mankind. However, even if Nature has creatures that die and mortal nature in its essence never dies but continues forever. The bird has no consciousness as man has and, therefore, the nightingale is part of the nature and merges in its essence. This is the very aspect which causes the speaker to label the nightingale as immortal. The bird is certainly part of the nature of immortality. This is because the bird is not in conflict with its surrounding but merges in it. This is what is very different in mankind. The contrast that is made between the immortal bird and the mortal human has been made more acute by the imaginations effort which the poet has been eager to highlight John Keats has written a whole series of odes but what makes this one unique is the contrast between Nature and man. This stresses upon the Romanticism much effectively as for Nature there is no end, and it is immortal. Mankind in the other hand is restricted and with the competition they have and the lack of reconciliation makes a man a mortal being. Man can never compare himself with the greatness of Nature (Shmoop p10). Nonetheless , the Ode to a Nightingale is a well expressed love for Nature and John Keatss message is very clear for the reader. This is a very epic ode appreciated by critics. Buy custom "Ode to a Nightingale" essay
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
The Impact of Transportation on the Environment - Essay Example From this paper it is clear thatÃ the impact of the transportation industry on the environment can be classified into three categories such as direct impact, indirect impact and cumulative impact. Direct impact deals with immediate consequences of transportation activities on the environment where the cause and effect relationship is clearly specified or explained. Indirect impact explains the secondary Ã impact or effect of the transportation activities on the environment.This essay discusses thatÃ the consequences of the indirect impact are higher as compared to the consequences of direct impact of transportation on the environment but the relationship between the direct and the indirect impact of the transportation on the environment is difficult to establish. Cumulative impact can be considered as the multiplicative, additive or synergic consequences of transportation activities on the environment. The cumulative impacts take into consideration the varied or different impac ts of the transportation on the ecosystem which are generally unpredictable in nature. Ã The transportation industry selected for discussion in this paper is trucking industry. Ã The trucking industry is often subsidized by public sector especially through the maintenance and construction of road infrastructure which is generally free of access. In developed countries the environmental regulations have been imposed by the government to reduce the emission of individual vehicles.
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
The Supply Chain Department of Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd - Essay Example The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s mission was to provide quality and innovative healthcare products for people and have a strong ethical stand culture in its business operations which help the company to give the maximum benefit to the stakeholders, shareholders and also to the society. Watson Pharmaceuticals is the major competitor for the company as they produce the similar products and also have a strong overall process. The company has shown a good growth rate in the previous few years and also has come up with new products launching them in the market (Ahmed, Tabassum and Hossain 2005:93). Supply chain management is a very strong and important part for the successful running of any company and mainly for companies which are in the pharmaceuticals business as they need to take care of all the members and also the information flow play a vital role in the market demand and changing trend in the market. It involves the overall flow and maintenance of the materials, information and the finance that is involved in the process which moves from the supplier to the company then to the retail and distributors from there to the end customers. The main objective of supply chain management is to reduce the inventory stock as a result reduces the additional cost of maintaining the stock. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s market share is 16.23% having a good growth rate of around 14.9% and in 2004 it had shown a growth rate of 11% in the country among all the competitors. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s market share is the highest among all other competitors and it enjoys the position of being a market leader. The company has enjoyed this position over the years because of the strong strategies that it has followed from last two decades which has got the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s growth to go up in an exponential manner (Baligh 2006:56). The company has always maintained a strategy to provide good quality products to its customers and have a transparent medium in
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Law Essays Legal ownership vested in trustees must be balanced by identifiable equitable ownership Legal ownership vested in trustees must be balanced by identifiable equitable ownership. Critically discuss this statement and the difficulties inherent in it in relation to the interests of beneficiaries under discretionary trusts. What is the practical importance of determining where the beneficial interest lies in discretionary trusts? The trust is a creature of equity. It has been described as Ã¢â¬Å"the paradigm case of equityÃ¢â¬â¢s interference with common law rights in pursuit of justice.Ã¢â¬ The trust imposes obligations on the legal owner of particular property to hold that property for the benefit of others. Thus the opening quotation can be said to identify one of the basic tenets of trust law in England and Wales. The trust has developed over the centuries in England to incorporate various types. One such type is the so-called discretionary trust. However, arguably disparity exists between the need to establish identifiable, beneficial or equitable ownership, and a discretionary trust which, by its nature, evades such identification. A contrast is seen between the discretionary trust and the fixed trust; although both are types of express trust. Under a fixed trust, the beneficial interests are just that: fixed. Thus the share of the trust property to which the beneficiary is to receive is Ã¢â¬ËfixedÃ¢â¬â¢ into the trust instrument. However with a discretionary trust, the trustee, in whom legal ownership vests, has a dispositive discretion. Thus under a fixed trust, the trustee must dispose of the trust property in accordance with the terms of the trust; whereas under a discretionary trust he may have discretion as to the precise value of the beneficiariesÃ¢â¬â¢ entitlement, or even if they are to receive anything at all. An example of such a dispositive discretion is where a trust is established for a group of beneficiaries Ã¢â¬Å"in such portions as the trustee shall in their absolute discretion see fitÃ¢â¬ . It is a fixed trustsÃ¢â¬â¢ rigidity which seemingly underpins the subsequent reasoning behind the discretionary trust. A fixed trust may become outmoded or outdated due to changing circumstances; whereas a trustee under a discretionary trust can respond appropriately to these changing circumstances by applying his discretion accordingly to the situation. A beneficiary may, for example in the light of his allotted share, decide to forego education or employment and live off the trust property; the so-called Ã¢â¬Å"trustafarianÃ¢â¬ . Under a discretionary trust the trustee would have the power to temporarily sever that beneficiary from the trust property as an incentive to become more self reliant. To take a further example from the common law, the seminal case of McPhail v Doulton (1971) saw Mr Baden establish a trust for the benefit of the staff of his company, their relatives and dependents. He granted Ã¢â¬Å"absolute discretionÃ¢â¬ to the trustees to distribute the trust fun d as they saw fit. By 1971, the trust fund had increased significantly, as had the size of the class of potential beneficiaries (the employees alone numbered 1300 in 1941). The nature of the trust was flexible enough to allow the trustees to select which members of the intended class should benefit. An interesting aspect of the discretionary trust, and a pertinent one to the opening quotation, is that no individual who is part of the class of possible beneficiaries, has any equitable title to or interest in the trust property until such time as the trustee exercises his discretion in that individualÃ¢â¬â¢s favour. It is also important to note that despite the discretion granted to the trustee, this does not equate to him having Ã¢â¬Ëfree reinÃ¢â¬â¢ to do whatever he wishes with the trust property.He will still be limited by the terms of the trust, and remains under a fiduciary obligation to carry out these terms. Again, McPhail v Doulton is significant here, as the House of Lords in that case held that the trustees, despite their Ã¢â¬Å"absolute discretionÃ¢â¬ to select the beneficiaries, were not at liberty to refuse to carry out the trust. However this does not arguably make it any easier to reconcile the discretionary trust with the opening quotation; rather it highl ights the limits of the trusteeÃ¢â¬â¢s dispositive discretion. To compare the discretionary trust to the fixed trust and the power of appointment is instructive:no proprietary interest in the fund exists with the objects of a power, unless an appointment is made in their favour. Under a fixed trust, the beneficiaries have an identifiable equitable title to the property: the subject of the trust. However with a discretionary trustit has been suggested that beneficiaries have a Ã¢â¬Å"quasi-proprietaryÃ¢â¬ right;that is that the class of beneficiaries as a whole can be seen to have a collective proprietary entitlement to the fund, although individual members of the class cannot claim individual proprietary entitlement. This was highlighted in Gartside v IRC(1968) when Lord Reid stated that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦you cannot tell what any one of the beneficiaries will receive until the trustees have exercised their discretion.Ã¢â¬ An important principle in trust law generally is that identified in the case of Saunders v Vautier (1841). Briefly, this principle states that a beneficiary who has an absolute interest under a trust, and who is sui juris (that is, of full age and sound mind) is entitled, at any time, to call on the trustee to transfer the legal title to the trust property in which the beneficiary holds that interest to him. The operation of this principle under a fixed trust is quite straightforward, as the beneficiaryÃ¢â¬â¢s equitable entitlement will be easily ascertainable. How does it apply to discretionary trusts where the interest is not so easily identifiable? This issue was considered by Romer J in the case of Re Smith (1928). With reference to the earlier case of Re Nelson(1918), Romer J stated that under a discretionary trust where there are two Ã¢â¬ËobjectsÃ¢â¬â¢ (the term applied to possible beneficiaries under a discretionary trust), Ã¢â¬Å"..You treat all the people put together just as though they formed one person, for whose benefit the trustees were directed to apply the whole fund.Ã¢â¬ So essentially, Romer J meant thatthe beneficiaries may, acting together as one, require the trustees to transfer the trust property to them as co-owners. However, perhaps the Saunders v Vautier principle is not entirely applicable to discretionary trusts; namely because the beneficiaries are not treated as having a vested interest in the trust property. Only after the beneficiaries, acting as one, have demanded the transfer of the trust property using the Vautier principle, do they acquire their indefeasible interests in the trust property. This was established in Vestey v IRC (No 2) (1979), but had already been considered by Lord Reid in Gartside v IRC (1968). Here Lord Reid stated that the individual interests of the objects of a discretionary trust are actually in competition with each other until such times as the each object has his own individual right to retain whatever income is appointed to him. To return to the rights of objects of discretionary trusts, how can they enforce a possible interest if that interest is not ascertainable because the trustee has not exercised his discretion? It is well established that objects of discretionary trusts have locus standi to sue trustees in order to enforce the trust. It is, however, difficult to control trustees in exercising their discretions. Trustees are under a duty to survey the range of objects, or the members of the class of potential recipients. Lord Wilberforce considered this matter in McPhail v Doulton, stating that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦Any trusteeÃ¢â¬ ¦would surely make it his duty to know what is the permissible area of selection and then consider responsibly, in individual cases, whether a contemplated beneficiary was within the power, and whether, in relation to other possible claimants, a particular grant was appropriateÃ¢â¬ . Thus the rights and interests of objects of a discretionary trust have caused considerable academ ic debate. Commentators such as Harris have suggested that under a discretionary trust, the trustees Ã¢â¬Å"appearÃ¢â¬ to be the legal owners, subject to the equitable rights of enforcement of the beneficiaries (as the objects will then become). If necessary, the courts will construe the terms of the trust to determine the boundaries of the trusteeÃ¢â¬â¢s discretion. In Gisborne v Gisborne, the trustee had been granted an Ã¢â¬Å"uncontrollable authorityÃ¢â¬ by the trust instrument. When the beneficiary received less of the trust property than she had hoped for, the court did not intervene because the trustee had acted within his authority as granted by the trust instrument. In addition, the discretion shown by the trustee must be exercised in good faith, and in the best interests of the objects or beneficiaries. Thus while this does not aid in establishing the beneficial interest, it does provide a crucial limit on a trusteeÃ¢â¬â¢s discretion. An interesting development in recent years in the area of the validity of a trusteeÃ¢â¬â¢s discretion is the application of the Wednesbury principle, which was established in the case of Associated Provincial Picture House Limited v Wednesbury Corporation (1948). This was applied in Edge v Pensions Ombudsman (1998), in which it was established that a court should not interfere unless the trustee took into account Ã¢â¬Å"improper, irrelevant or irrational considerationsÃ¢â¬ . Again, although this provides a useful limit to the unfettered discretion of a trustee, it does not necessarily assist in identifying the beneficial interest to counterbalance the legal interest vested in the trustee. A discussion of the beneficial interest under a discretionary trust must consider the important distinction between a trust and a power. As Martin simply puts it, Ã¢â¬Å"trusts are imperative; powers are discretionary.Ã¢â¬ That is to say the trustees are obliged to carry out their duties under the trust, whereas donees under a power may or may not exercise the power as they see fit. This highlights the essential problem with the opening quotationÃ¢â¬â¢s applicability to discretionary trusts, even though the beneficiaries as a whole, or as one, own the interest to equitable title in the trust property, and can even compel the trustees to transfer the legal title to them under the principle in Saunders v Vautiers (1841). This approach was subsequently adopted by Romer J in the Court of Appeal in Re Smith (1928), in which he said that the principle should be to Ã¢â¬Å"treat all the people put together just as though they formed one person, for whose benefit the trustees were direct ed to apply the whole of a particular fund.Ã¢â¬ The beneficiaries cannot demand payment under a discretionary trust as they would be able to under a fixed trust, because there is no identifiable value to which the beneficiary is entitled until the trustee exercises his discretion. The beneficiaries can, however, compel the trustee to consider what he will do, although they cannot compel him to distribute. This was established in McPhail v Doulton, and also demonstrates where the distinction between a discretionary trust and a power exists: under the latter there is no such duty on the donee to make an appointment. McPhail v Doulton was also significant because of Lord WilberforceÃ¢â¬â¢s criticisms of the rule set out in IRC v Broadway Cottages Trust (1955) in relation to the validity of discretionary trusts. That rule, he stated, ought to be discarded, and the new test ought to be Ã¢â¬Å"that the trust is valid if it can be said with certainty that any given individual is or is not a member of the classÃ¢â¬ (at 456). The test in IRC v Broadway Cottages Trust was known as the Ã¢â¬Å"complete listÃ¢â¬ test, and suggested that a discretionary trust would fail for lack of certainty of objects if a Ã¢â¬Å"complete listÃ¢â¬ of the potential beneficiaries could not be drawn up. Lord WilberforceÃ¢â¬â¢s criticisms focused on the fact that this was only really appropriate where the discretionary trust was a Ã¢â¬Å"family-styleÃ¢â¬ trust under which the class of potential beneficiaries was small, and was inappropriate given the changing social functions of the discretionary trust. In McPh ail v Doulton, however, as Lord Wilberforce identified, this test was simply unworkable, since that case would have demanded a complete list be drawn up of all employees, ex-employees, relatives and dependents. This highlights the administrative difficulties of the original test. As amended by Lord Wilberforce, however, the test becomes more manageable. Harris has described McPhail v Doulton as a watershed in the law in this area. This was largely because of its effect on the existing law as set down in IRC v Broadway Cottages Trust, which stated that to be valid, a discretionary trust had to specify an ascertainable class of cestuis que trust. As Harris argues, this was a welcome development as many judgments, applying the previously existing law, had expressed regret as to the position of the law on policy grounds. An example of this is in the Broadway Cottages case itself, in which Jenkins LJ admitted that the rule was contrary to common sense. What other factors contribute to the practical importance of establishing where the beneficial ownership lies in discretionary trusts? Under the complete list test, the beneficial ownership would necessarily be shared equally by the entire class of beneficiaries in the event that the trustee defaulted in his duty. Lord Wilberforce also addressed this issue in McPhail v Doulton. Ã¢â¬Å"Equal division is surely the last thing the settlor ever intended: equal division among all probably would produce a result beneficial to noneÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (at 451). As Gardner points out, this recognised the evolution of the social function of the discretionary trust to enable property owners to Ã¢â¬Å"confer benefits on deserving cases amongst large constituencies Ã¢â¬â in the same sort of way as charitable trusts.Ã¢â¬ Where the beneficial ownership lies in discretionary trusts is also important in the context of Ã¢â¬Å"administrative unworkabilityÃ¢â¬ , another concept to arise out of McPhai l v Doulton. This applies to situations where, again in the words of Lord Wilberforce, Ã¢â¬Å"the meaning of the words used is clear but the definition of the beneficiaries is so wide as to not form Ã¢â¬Å"anything like a classÃ¢â¬ so that the trust is administratively unworkableÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (at 457). Lord ReidÃ¢â¬â¢s comment in Gartside v IRC noted above perhaps gives the best illustration of the position of discretionary beneficiaries in relation to identifiable beneficial interest in the trust property. He stated that Ã¢â¬Å"two or more persons, cannot have a single right unless they hold it jointly or in common. But clearly the objects of a discretionary trust do not have that: they have individual rights, they are in competition with each other and what the trustees give to one is his alone.Ã¢â¬ The same principle was applied in Re WeirÃ¢â¬â¢s Settlement (1969) and Sainsbury v IRC (1970). The difficulties of applying the principle outlined in the opening quotation to discretionary trusts have been considered. Fundamentally it is problematic because the whole purpose of a discretionary trust is to allow the trustee to use his discretion to assign a value of the trust property to a particular beneficiary. Although the class of potential beneficiaries as a whole own the beneficial interest, arguably there is no way of identifying the individual shares until the trustee has exercised his discretion. Even this assertion is contentious, however, as Pettitt, for example, has argued that the beneficial interest under a discretionary trust remains Ã¢â¬Å"in suspenseÃ¢â¬ until the trustees exercise their discretion. The more significant right of the members of the class of beneficiaries is the right to be considered as a potential recipient from the fund by the trustees. This was highlighted by Lord Wilberforce in IRC v Gartside (at 606). Furthermore, the members have the ri ght to have the trustees use their discretion Ã¢â¬Å"bona fidesÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"fairlyÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"reasonablyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"properlyÃ¢â¬ . This falls some way short of the rights of a beneficiary under a fixed trust, and again, highlights the fundamental problem with the application of the opening statement to the operation of discretionary trusts. BIBLIOGRAPHY Cases Associated Provincial Picture House Limitd v Wednesbury Corporation  1 KB 223 Burrough v Philcox (1840) 5 My CR 72 Edge v Pensions Ombudsman (1998) Gartside v IRC  AC 553 Gisborne v Gisborne (1877) 2 App Cas 300 IRC v Broadway Cottages Trust  Ch 20 McPhail v Doulton  AC 424 Re GulbenkianÃ¢â¬â¢s Settlement  Ch 408 Re Nelson, ex parter Dare and Dolphin  1 KB 459 Re Smith, Public Trustee v Aspinall  Ch 915 Re TraffordÃ¢â¬â¢s Settlement  Ch 32 Re WeirÃ¢â¬â¢s Settlement  1 Ch 657 Sainsbury v IRC  Ch 712 Saunders v Vautier (1841) 4 Beav 114 Vestey v IRC (No 2)  Ch 198 Secondary sources Gardner, S (2003) An Introduction to the Law of Trusts, 3rd Edition (Oxford: Clarenden) Harris, J. (1971) Ã¢â¬ËTrust, Power or DutyÃ¢â¬â¢, 87 Law Quarterly Review 31 Harris, J. (1970) Ã¢â¬ËDiscretionary Trusts, an End and a BeginningÃ¢â¬â¢, Modern Law Review, 33, 6 Hudsdon, A. (2007) Equity and Trusts, 5th Edition (London: Routledge) Martin, J.E. (2001) Hanbury and Martin Ã¢â¬â Modern Equity, 16th Edition (London: Sweet Maxwell) Pearce, R. and Stevens, J. (2006) The Law of Trusts and Equitable Obligations, 4th Edition (Oxford: OUP) Penner, J.E. (2004) The Law of Trusts, 4th Edition (London: LexisNexis) Pettit, P.H. (2001) Equity and the Law of Trusts, 9th Edition (Oxford: OUP) Watt, G. (2007) Todd and Watts Cases and Materials on Equity and Trusts, 6th Edition (Oxford: OUP)
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Wikipedia: An accounting information system (AIS) is a system of collection, storage and processing of financial and accounting data that is used by decision makers. An accounting information system is generally a computer-based method for tracking accounting activity in conjunction with information technology resources. The resulting statistical reports can be used internally by management or externally by other interested parties including investors, creditors and tax authorities. The actual physical devices and systems that allows the AIS to operate and perform its functions 1. Internal controls and security measures: what is implemented to safeguard the data 2. Model Base ManagementThe collection, storage and processing of financial and accounting data that is used by decision makers. An accounting information system is generally a computer-based method for tracking accounting activity in conjunction with information technology resources. The resulting statistical reports can be used internally by management or externally by other interested parties including investors, creditors and tax authorities. An accounting information systems that combines traditional accounting practices such as the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) with modern information technology resources. Six elements compose the typical accounting information system: People Ã¢â¬â the system users.Procedure and Instructions Ã¢â¬â methods for retrieving and processing data. Data Ã¢â¬â information pertinent to the organization's business practices. Software Ã¢â¬â computer programs used to process data.Information Technology Infrastructure Ã¢â¬â hardware used to operate the system. Internal Controls Ã¢â¬â security measures to protect sensitive data.MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTINGManagement accounting or managerial accounting is concerned with the provisions and use of accounting information to managers within organizations, to provide them with the basis to make informed bu siness decisions that will allow them to be better equipped in their management andÃ control functions.In contrast to financial accountancy information, management accounting information is: primarily forward-looking, instead of historicallyÃ model based with a degree of abstraction to support decision making generically, instead of case based; designed and intended for use by managers within the organization, instead of being intended for use by shareholders, creditors, and public regulators; usually confidential and used by management, instead of publicly reported; computed by reference to the needs of managers, often using management information systems, instead of by reference to general.The process of preparing management reports andaccounts that provide accurate and timely financial and statistical information required by managers to make day-to-day and short-term decisions. Unlike financial accounting, which produces annual reports mainly for external stakeholders, manage ment accounting generates monthly or weekly reports for an organization's internal audiences such as department managers and the chief executive officer. These reports typically show the amount of available cash, sales revenue generated, amount of orders in hand, state of accounts payable and accounts receivable, outstanding debts, raw material and inventory, and may also include trend charts, variance analysis, and other statistics. Also called managerial accounting.BUSINESS POLICYThis course examines the components and processes of the strategic management model, using examples from Canada and the United States. Students learn to do case analysis throughout the course. Topics covered include strategic management, social responsibility, environmental and internal analysis and diagnosis, strategy selection, and implementation and evaluation After completing this course, students should be able to:Perform a rigorous analysis of a company's strategic direction. Identify and explain a company's mission and vision statement and relate and critiqueÃ these statements to the company's strategic direction. Prepare a SWOT (strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats) analysis and explain and evaluate the relationship between the SWOT and a company's strategic direction. Identify and explain all micro and macro forces that shape a company's strategic plan and determine performance. Analyze and evaluate all the steps for the proper alignment of financial and non-financial resources within a company's strategic plan.Analyze a company's strategic plan in the context of the industry life cycle and environment in which it operates. Analyze, evaluate, and draw conclusions on the effectiveness and performance of control and integration mechanisms. Establish metrics to assess and measure strategic performance. Analyze and evaluate the company's communication and feedback loop relative to company strategy and performance.Analyze, evaluate, and draw conclusions on the finan cial performance relative to the company's strategic plan. Analyze, evaluate, and identify risks and risk mitigation strategies appropriate to the company's strategic direction. Analyze, evaluate, and develop strategies for a single or multi-business organization. Assess, analyze, and recommend changes to company strategy based on a full analysis of a company's strategic plan. Develop and prepare a strategic review document presented in a consistent form and properly documented.PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENTProduction and Operations Management (Ã¢â¬Å"POMÃ¢â¬ ) is about the transformation of production and operational inputs into Ã¢â¬Å"outputsÃ¢â¬ that, when distributed, meet the needs of customers.The process in the above diagram is often referred to as the Ã¢â¬Å"Conversion ProcessÃ¢â¬ . There are several different methods of handling the conversion or production process Ã¢â¬â Job, Batch, Flow and Group. POM incorporates many tasks that are interdependent, but whi ch can be grouped under five main headings:PRODUCTMarketers in a business must ensure that a business sells products that meet customer needs and wants. The role of Production and Operations is to ensure that the business actually makes the required products in accordance with the plan. The role of PRODUCT in POM therefore concerns areas such as:Ã¢â¬â Performance Ã¢â¬â Aesthetics Ã¢â¬â Quality Ã¢â¬â Reliability Ã¢â¬â Quantity Ã¢â¬â Production costs Ã¢â¬â Delivery datesPLANTTo make PRODUCT, PLANT of some kind is needed. This will comprise the bulk of the fixed assets of the business. In determining which PLANT to use, management must consider areas such as: Ã¢â¬â Future demand (volume, timing)Ã¢â¬â Design and layout of factory, equipment, offices Ã¢â¬â Productivity and reliability of equipment Ã¢â¬â Need for (and costs of) maintenance Ã¢â¬â Heath and safety (particularly the operation of equipment) Ã¢â¬â Environmental issues (e.g. creation of wa ste products)PROCESSESThere are many different ways of producing a product. Management must choose the best process, or series of processes.They will consider: Ã¢â¬â Available capacity Ã¢â¬â Available skills Ã¢â¬â Type of production Ã¢â¬â Layout of plant and equipment Ã¢â¬â Safety Ã¢â¬â Production costs Ã¢â¬â Maintenance requirementsPROGRAMMESThe production PROGRAMME concerns the dates and times of the products that are to be produced and supplied to customers. The decisions made about programme will be influenced by factors such as: Ã¢â¬â Purchasing patterns (e.g. lead time)Ã¢â¬â Cash flow Ã¢â¬â Need for / availability of storage Ã¢â¬â TransportationPEOPLEProduction depends on PEOPLE, whose skills, experience and motivation vary. Key people-related decisions will consider the following areas: Ã¢â¬â Wages and salaries Ã¢â¬â Safety and training Ã¢â¬â Work conditions Ã¢â¬â Leadership and motivation Ã¢â¬â Unionisation Ã¢â¬â Communicati onGOOD GOVERNANCEGood governance is about the processes for making and implementing decisions. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not about making Ã¢â¬ËcorrectÃ¢â¬â¢ decisions, but about the best possible process for making those decisions.Good decision-making processes, and therefore good governance, share several characteristics. All have a positive effect on various aspects of local government including consultation policies and practices, meeting procedures, service quality protocols, councillor and officer conduct, role clarification and good working relationships.
Friday, January 10, 2020
Academy Awards, 1995 Golden Globe Awards, 1995 MTVMovie Awards, 1995 People? s Choice Awards, 2005 American Film Institute Awards andvarious other ones. It was an adaption of a novel of the same name, by Winston Groom. Robert Zemeckis was the director of the movie, and he made great decisions about thecamera techniques to be used in each scene. In 1996, a restaurant with the name? Bubba Gump? was open in honour of the movie, and surprisingly there is one in thePeak Galleria in Hong Kong! The opening scene of the movie is filmed very beautifully, especially with thefeather floating in the air, because it creates the mood of the whole piece. Also, themusic and sounds chosen to accompany the opening scene, contributes to the tone of the entire movie. From right the beginning of the film, the feather is already floating around in theair. This white feather is a symbolic object that counts as a sign. The whiteness of itseems to show the purity and innocence Forrest has, and his enthusiastic personality,where he is determined to do whatever it takes to fulfill his own, and his friends andfamilies? dreams. It also seem to symbolize the famous quote that his mom always said,? Life is like a box of chocolates. You never know what you? e gonna get.? With thefeather floating to random places, e. g. on top of cars, on people? s shoulders, on thefloor? It shows how random life can be, and how no one ever knows what lies in theirpath of life, what obstacles they will have to overcome, and what their destiny is. A very interesting effect the feather is shot from in the opening scene is that it isa extreme long shot of different parts of the town, allowing the audience to adapt thesetting of the film into their minds, whilst the feather is shot from multiple angles,sometimes close up, and sometimes using medium shots. With the words and the townbackground, the feather interestingly, is still the focal point of the whole shot, andunintentionally, your eyes follow wherever it is going even when the background ischanged drastically. When the feather is shot in the sky, it is from a low angle, which shows theimportance of it as a sign, so it feels as if the feather is superior to the audience, whoare inferior in this point of the film. There are also several shots of the feather floatingabove the forest with lots of greenery; the colours really contrast, with the white on thegreen, which also helps draw the audience? attention to the tiny white feather in theforeground. The two minutes with the feather as the focal point of the shots are shotfrom different distances and various techniques. Sometimes, the feather is close up, andcomparing it with the size of the buildings in the background, it almost seems bigger. During the whole process of introducing the feather and the symbolism behind it, thecamera technique used is track, because the camera just follows wherever the feathergoes. When the feather lands on a man? s shoulder and on the car, a medium shot isused, and its shot from a high angle. Normally, it is when a low angle is used that the audience feels inferior, but in this situation, the feather still seems somewhat superior,and looking down at it, feels like the audience is looking at the whole theory of life usinga different point of view. With various examples of the feather landing on differentplaces, it shows how many unexpected things could happen in life, and no one knowswhat their destiny will be. After floating for a long time in the wind, the feather finally ends up on theground next to Forrest GumpÃ¢â¬â¢s shoe and stops moving. A close up of the shoe along withthe feather is taken, which emphasizes once again, the importance of the feather, andthe shoe as well. So far, the camera technique used is still tracking. The shoe is also asign because it shows how Forrest has managed to overcome many obstaclesthroughout life, to be in the position he is now. The shoe is significant, because as achild, Forrest had a problem with his spine, so he couldn? t walk properly. He starts running and breaks his leg braces, and through all thepain and suffering, manages to start running, and learns that his legs are functional. Soespecially since his shoes are dirty in the shot, it portrays that he has worked very hardand overcame many obstacles wearing those shoes. Also, Forrest states that his motheralways says ? Shoes can tell a lot about a person. Where they go. Where they havebeen.? The close up continues on when Forrest picks up the feather with his hand, andduring that instance, a tilt is used where the audience looks at Forrest from his feet upto his head. This is a great way to introduce the character. Whilst Forrest examining thefeather, the audience sees just the top half of his body, which means that a mediumshot was used. It is effective to use a medium shot for this part of the film, because theaudience should really focus on the facial expression on Forrest? s face to see what hefeels about the feather. The medium shot continues to be in use when Forrest placesthe feather in his suitcase. A track is used to show Forrest using a medium shot once again afterwards, toshow him staring into the difference, this quickly cuts into a long shot of him still lookinginto the distance. A sense of mystery is created because the audience members want tofind out what is so interesting that he keeps on staring at. Then, a bus comes along andblocks the view of Forrest, and the connection between the audience and Forrest isbroken. The camera remains still until the woman who comes off the bus sits on thebench next to Forrest. A zoom is used here, which is quite effective, because essentially,the audience really wants to know what will happen between Forrest and this woman. Most likely, they will begin chatting, which is why there is a zoom used to basically seewhat will happen. After a bit of chatting between the two, the camera quickly zoomsinto a close up of Forrest? s face. This is a very important and beneficial shot, because itgradually slips into the next scene here. Where Forrest starts squinting his eyes? Overall, a variety of camera movements, angles and distances are used in theopening scene of the well ? known film Forrest Gump. The main sign is the feather,which is in nearly the whole of the opening scene. The significance of it is shown withthe comparison to Forrest? s mothers? theory of life.